PhD degree programs

Environmental Engineering- Water and Wastewater

Environmental Engineering- Water and Wastewater


Kish International Campus

Ph.D. Degree Program in

Environmental Engineering- Water and Wastewater

Introduction

The Ph.D. degree program in Environmental Engineering-Water and Wastewater aims to develop water and wastewater treatment scientists, technologists and engineers with the skills to solve practical problems, communicate effectively and work successfully both in teams and individually, also high quality graduates trained and qualified to work in all areas of water and wastewater treatment and management enabling them to provide a valuable contribution to the global water sectors.

PhD Curriculum

The PhD of Environmental Engineering-Water and Wastewater requires completion of 36 credits, a set of specialty courses (18 credits) and a PhD thesis (18 credits). The main emphasis of the program is on the successful completion of an original and independent research project written and defended as a dissertation.

Comprehensive Exam

Comprehensive Exam should be taken at most at the end of the 4th semester and is required before a student could defend the Ph.D. proposal. Students will have two chances to pass the Ph.D. Comprehensive Exam. If students receive an evaluation of "unsatisfactory" on their first Comprehensive Exam attempt, the student may retake the qualifier once. A second failure will result in termination from the program. The Comprehensive Exam is designed to ensure that the student starts early in gaining research experience; it also ensures that the student has the potential to conduct doctoral-level research.

Ph.D. Proposal

The Ph.D. proposal must contain Specific Aims, Research Design and Methods, and Proposed Work and Timeline. In addition the proposal must also contain a bibliography and, as attachments, any publications/supplementary materials. The student must defend their thesis proposal to their committee in an oral exam.

Thesis

A student should choose a thesis advisor (and one or two co-advisors if required) within the first year of being in the PhD program, approved by the Faculty committee. In the second year a thesis committee suggested by the advisor alongside by the Ph.D. proposal should be handed over for approval. The thesis committee should consist of a minimum of five faculty members. Two members of thesis committee should be from the other Universities at the associate Professor level. Not later than the end of the 5th semester a student has to present and defend a written PhD proposal.

Research Progress

A student is expected to meet with his/her thesis committee at least once a year to review the research progress. In the beginning of each university calendar year, each student and the student's advisor are required to submit an evaluation assessment of the student's progress, outlining past year accomplishments and plans for the current year. The thesis committee reviews these summaries and sends the student a letter summarizing their status in the program. Students who are failing to make satisfactory progress are expected to correct any deficiencies and move to the next milestone within one year. Failure to do so will result in dismissal from the program.

PhD Dissertation

Within 4 years after entering the PhD program, the student is expected to complete the thesis research; the student must have the results of the research accepted or published in peer reviewed journals. Upon submitting a written thesis and public defense and approval by the committee, the student is awarded the PhD degree. The defense will consist of (1) a presentation of the dissertation by the graduate student, (2) questioning by the general audience, and (3) closed door questioning by the dissertation committee. The student will be informed of the exam result at the completion of all three parts of the dissertation defense. All members of the committee must sign the final report of the doctoral committee and the final version of the dissertation.
A minimum GPA of 16 over 20 must be maintained for graduation.

Leveling Courses (not applicable to degree)

The Ph.D. in Environmental Engineering-Water and Wastewater assumes a Master degree in related fields. However students holding any other master degree besides will be required to complete leveling courses that are designed to provide a back ground for the Ph.D. courses.  These leveling courses are decided by the faculty committee and are not counted for graduate credits towards the Ph.D. in Environmental Engineering-Water and Wastewater.


Specialty courses: 9 courses required; 18 credits

Course

Credits

Hours

Water and wastewater laboratory

1+1

16+32

Industrial wastewater treatment

2

32

Health risk assessment of water pollutants

2

32

Wastewater collection network and runoff control

2

32

Advanced wastewater treatment

2

32

Industrial water treatment

2

32

Special topics in water treatment

2

32

Biological Processes in wastewater treatment

2

32

Water and wastewater treatment plant operation

2

32

Persistent Organic pollutants

2

32

Urban water distribution network design

2

32

Unit operation lab of water and wastewater treatment

1+1

16+32

Water reclamation and reuse

2

32

Wastewater post treatment

2

32

Bioreactor design

2

32

Nanotechnology in water and wastewater treatment

2

32

Absorptive processes in water and wastewater treatment

2

32

Advanced chemical treatment of water and wastewater

2

32

Biotechnology in water and wastewater treatment

2

32


 

Course Descriptions

Industrial wastewater treatment

Course Content:

Treatment of industrial wastewaters, flow measurement characterization and treatability studies of industrial wastewaters, unit operations and unit processes, stream pollution and selfpurification, pretreatment of industrial wastes, textile wastes, dairy wastes, tannery wastes, sugar mill wastes, pulp and paper mill wastes, fermentation industry wastes, the engineering industry, petroleum refining industry, petrochemicals industry, fertilizer and pesticides industries, vegetable oil food and allied industries, dyestuff and dye manufacturing industries, rubber wastes, radioactive wastes, organic and inorganic chemicals, common effluent treatment plants

References

[1]

A. PATWARDHAN, INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT, PHI Learning Pvt, 2017.

[2]

A. Türkman and O. Uslu, New Developments in Industrial Wastewater Treatment, Springer , 2012.

[3]

W. E. Federation, Industrial Wastewater Management, Treatment, and Disposal, 3e MOP FD-3, McGraw Hill Professional, 2008.

 


 

Water and wastewater laboratory

Course Content:

Safety in Laboratories and Chemical Hygiene, Analytical Techniques, Sampling, Methods of Estimation, Data Validation, Pollution Prevention and Waste Minimization in Laboratories, Environmental Effects and Water Quality, Waterrelated Standards,
References

[1]

K. Kaur, Handbook of Water and Wastewater Analysis, Atlantic Publishers & Dist, 2007.

 


Health risk assessment of water pollutants

Course Content:

Role of Engineering Risk Analysis in Water Pollution Problems, Environmental Risk Assessment and Management, Aim and Organisation of the Book, RISK IDENTIFICATION, Definition of Risk, Uncertainties in Water Pollution Problems, Probabilistic Approach, Use of Fuzzy Set Theory, Water Quality Specifications, Risk quantification, Stochastic Approach, Fuzzy Set Theory, Time Dependence and System Risk, Risk assessment of environmental water quality, Risk in Coastal Water Pollution, Risk in River Water Quality, Risk in Groundwater Contamination, Risk management, Performance Indices and Figures of Merit, Objective Functions and Optimization, Basic Decision Theory, Elements of the Utility Theory, Multi-Objective Decision Analysis, Case studies, Coastal Pollution: the Thermaikos Gulf (Makedonia, Greece), River Water Quality: the Case of Axios (Makedonia, Greece), Groundwater Pollution: the Campaspe Aquifer (Victoria, Australia)

References

[1]

A. E. McKeown, Impact of Water Pollution on Human Health and Environmental Sustainability, IGI Global, 2015.

[2]

J. Ganoulis, Engineering Risk Analysis of Water Pollution: Probabilities and Fuzzy Sets, John Wiley & Sons, 2008.

 


Wastewater collection network and runoff control

Course Content:

Health and Safety in Wastewater, Types of Sewers, Pipe Types, Line Cleaning Equipment and Techniques, Jetting Operations, Nozzle Technology, Purchasing a Jetter, Wastewater Control and Grease, Roots, Chemical Root Control and Foam, ClosedCircuit TV Operations, Computers and Maintenance, Manholes, Rehabilitation Analysis, Repairs Rehabilitation, Wastewater Systems, Hydrology Rainfall and Runoff, Urban Runoff and Combined Sewer Overflow Management, Hydraulics of Sewer Systems, Design of Sewer Systems, Sewerage Systems Modeling and Computer Applications, Sewer Material, Appurtenances, and Maintenance, Trenchless Technology and Sewer System Rehabilitation, Alternative Wastewater Collection Systems, Engineering Projects Management, Prevention through Design and System Safety

References

[1]

D. A. Okun, L. K. Wang and N. K. Shammas, Water Supply and Distribution and Wastewater Collection, John Wiley and Sons, 2010.

[2]

M. J. Parcher, Wastewater Collection System Maintenance, CRC Press, 1997.

 


Advanced Wastewater Treatment

Course Content:

Introduction, Solar PhotoFenton as Advanced Oxidation Technology for Water Reclamation, Solar Photocatalytic Treatment of Wastewater, Basics and Applications, Impinging Jet Ozone Bubble Column Reactors, Recent Trends and Advancements, Removal of Heavy Metals by Seaweeds in Wastewater Treatment, Microbial Treatment of Heavy Metals Oil and Radioactive Contamination in Wastewaters, Anaerobic Wastewater Treatment in Tapered Fluidized Bed Reactor, Treatment of Effluent Waters in Food Processing Industries, Challenges and Solutions, Treatment and Reuse Potential of Graywater from Urban Households in Oman, Anaerobic Fixed Bed Reactor for Treatment of Industrial Wastewater

References

[1]

A. A. Hamidi and A. Mojiri, Wastewater Engineering: Advanced Wastewater Treatment Systems, IJSR Publications, 2014.

[2]

D. G. Rao, R. Senthilkumar, J. A. Byrne and S. Feroz, Wastewater Treatment: Advanced Processes and Technologies, CRC Press, 2012.

 


Industrial water treatment

Course Content:
Foundation, Water Treatment, Water Contaminants, Models, Unit Process Principles, Particulate Separations, Screening, Sedimentation, Grit Chambers, Flotation, Microscopic Particles, Coagulation, Mixing, Flocculation, Rapid Filtration, Slow Sand Filtration, Cake Filtration, Molecules and Ions, Adsorption, IonExchange, Membrane Processes, Gas Transfer, Disinfection, Oxidation, Precipitation, Biological Treatment, Biological Reactions and Kinetics, Biological Reactors

References

[1]

D. Hendricks, Fundamentals of Water Treatment Unit Processes: Physical, Chemical, and Biological, CRC Press, 2016.

[2]

F. R. Spellman, Handbook of Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operations, Third Edition, CRC Press, 2013.

[3]

Z. Amjad, The Science and Technology of Industrial Water Treatment, CRC Press, 2010.

 


Special topics in water treatment

Course Content:

Introduction, Physical and Chemical Quality of Water, Microbiological Quality of Water, Water Quality Management Strategies, Principles of Chemical Reactions, Principles of Reactor Analysis and Mixing, Principles of Mass Transfer, Chemical Oxidation and Reduction, Coagulation and Flocculation, Gravity Separation, Granular Filtration, Membrane Filtration, Disinfection, Air Stripping and Aeration, Adsorption, Ion Exchange, Reverse Osmosis, Advanced Oxidation, Disinfection/Oxidation By-products, Removal of Selected Constituents, Residuals Management, Internal Corrosion of Water Conduits, Synthesis of Treatment Trains: Case Studies from Bench to Full Scale, UV lightbased applications, UVH2O2 processes, Fenton processes, Semiconductor photocatalysis, Photo electrocatalysis processes, Ultrasound processes, Radiation processes, Wet air oxidation processes, AOPs for VOCs and odour treatment, Advanced oxidation of textile industry dyes, Water treatment applications

References

[1]

J. C. Crittenden, R. R. Trussell, D. W. Hand, K. J. Howe and G. Tchobanoglous, MWH's Water Treatment: Principles and Design, John Wiley & Sons, 2012.

 


Biological Processes in wastewater treatment

Course Content:

Basic concepts of biological processes, Principles of process design for industrial wastewater, Biological wastewater treatment systems, Application of biological treatment systems, Chemical and petrochemical wastewaters, Closing process water cycles and product recoveryHow Nature Deals with Waste, How Man Deals with Waste, The Role of Organisms, FixedFilm Reactors, Activated Sludge, Natural Treatment Systems, Anaerobic Unit Processes, Sludge Treatment and Disposal, Public Health, Biotechnology and Wastewater Treatment, Sustainable Sanitation

References

[1]

F. J. Cervantes, S. G. Pavlostathis and A. v. Haandel, Advanced Biological Treatment Processes for Industrial Wastewaters, IWA Publishing, 2006.

[2]

M. Henze, P. Harremoes, E. Arvin and J. L. Jansen, Wastewater Treatment: Biological and Chemical Processes, Springer, 2013.

[3]

G. Nick F, Biology Of Wastewater Treatment (2nd Edition), World Scientific, 2004.

 


Water and wastewater treatment plant operation

Course Content:

Current Issues in Water and Wastewater Treatment Operations, Water/Wastewater Operators, Upgrading Security, Energy Conservation Measures and Sustainability, Water/Wastewater References, Models, and Terminology, Water/Wastewater Operations: Math, Physics, and Technical Aspects, Water/Wastewater Math Operations, Science Fundamentals, Blueprint Reading, Water Hydraulics, Fundamentals of Electricity, Hydraulic Machines: Pumps, Water/Wastewater Conveyance, Characteristics of Water, Basic Water Chemistry, Water Microbiology, Water Ecology, Water Quality, Biomonitoring, Monitoring, Sampling, and Testing, Water and Water Treatment, Potable Water Source, Watershed Protection, Water Treatment Operations, Wastewater and Wastewater Treatment, Wastewater Treatment Operations

References

[1]

F. R. Spellman, Mathematics Manual for Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operators, Second Edition: Water Treatment Operations: Math Concepts and Calculations, CRC Press, 2014.

[2]

F. R. Spellman, Handbook of Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operations, Third Edition, CRC Press, 2013.

 


Persistent Organic pollutants

Book Content:

Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution on Persistent Organic Pollutants: The 1998 Agreement for the UNECE Region, The Development of a Global Treaty on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), Criteria for Additional POPs, Chlorinated Pesticides: Aldrin, DDT, Endrin, Dieldrin, Mirex, Hexachlorobenzene, Dioxins and Furans (PCDD/PCDF), Releases of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans to Land and Water and with Products, Toxicology and Risk Assessment of POPs, Multimedia Models of Global Transport and Fate of Persistent Organic Pollutants, Background Contamination of Humans with Dioxins, Dioxin-Like PCBs and Other POPs, POPs in Southern Africa, Organochlorines in Nigeria and Africa, Sources, Fates and Effects of Persistent Organic Pollutants in China, with Emphasis on the Pearl River Delt, DDT in Mexico, Dioxin and Furan Reduction Technologies for Combustion and Industrial Thermal Process Facilities, Alternative Technologies for Destruction of PCB and Other POPs

References

[1]

A. Schecter, Dioxins and Health: Including Other Persistent Organic Pollutants and Endocrine Disruptors, John Wiley & Sons, 2012.

[2]

S. Harrad, Persistent Organic Pollutants: Environmental Behaviour and Pathways of Human Exposure, Springer , 2012.

[3]

G. O'Sullivan and C. Sandau, Environmental Forensics for Persistent Organic Pollutants, Newnes, 2013.

[4]

H. Fiedler, Persistent Organic Pollutants, Springer , 2002.

 


Urban water distribution network design

Course Content:

Introduction, Basic Principles of Pipe Flow, Pipe Network Analysis, Cost Considerations, General Principles of Network Synthesis, Water Transmission Lines, Water Distribution Mains, SingleInput Source Branched Systems, SingleInput Source Looped Systems, MultiInput Source Branched Systems, MultiInput Source Looped Systems, Decomposition of a Large Water System and Optimal Zone Size, Reorganization of Water Distribution Systems, Transportation of Solids Through Pipelines

References

[1]

E. Cabrera and A. F. Vela, Improving Efficiency and Reliability in Water Distribution Systems, Springer , 2013.

[2]

P. K. Swamee and A. K. Sharma, Design of Water Supply Pipe Networks, John Wiley & Sons, 2008.

 


Unit operation lab of water and wastewater treatment

Course Content:

Current Issues in Water and Wastewater Treatment Operations, Water/Wastewater Operators, Upgrading Security, Energy Conservation Measures and Sustainability, Water/Wastewater References, Models, and Terminology, Water/Wastewater Operations: Math, Physics, and Technical Aspects, Water/Wastewater Math Operations, Science Fundamentals, Blueprint Reading, Water Hydraulics, Fundamentals of Electricity, Hydraulic Machines: Pumps, Water/Wastewater Conveyance, Characteristics of Water, Basic Water Chemistry, Water Microbiology, Water Ecology, Water Quality, Biomonitoring, Monitoring, Sampling, and Testing, Water and Water Treatment, Potable Water Source, Watershed Protection, Water Treatment Operations, Wastewater and Wastewater Treatment, Wastewater Treatment Operations

References

[1]

F. R. Spellman, Handbook of Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operations, Third Edition, CRC Press, 2013.

 


 

Water reclamation and reuse

Course Content:

Introduction, International MAR Case Studies, Water Quality Analysis in MAR – Methods and Results, Water Reclamation Technologies in MAR, Design and Management of MAR Systems, Promoting MAR Systems for Water Recycling, Water reuse in Middle Eastern and North African countries, Water reuse in the United States and Canada, Water reuse in Australia and New Zealand, Water reuse in Central Europe, Water reuse in Asia, Water reuse in Central and Southern Regions of Africa, Water reuse in Latin America and the Caribbean, Public acceptance of water reuse, Environmental and health risk based, Water reuse in Japan, Water reuse in Faisalbad Pakistan, Water reuse practices for agriculture, Wastewater irrigation in urban agriculture, Municipal water reuse, Ethical dilemmas in water recycling, The economic dilemmas of water management and reuse, Wastewater reclamation and reuse in Spain, Case studies in Middle Eastern and North African countries, Water Availability and Water Intensity Use index

References

[1]

C. Binnie and M. Kimber, Water Reuse, IWA Publishing, 2008.

[2]

C. Kazner, T. Wintgens and P. Dillon, Water Reclamation Technologies for Safe Managed Aquifer Recharge, IWA Publishing, 2012.

 


Wastewater post treatment

Course Content:

Nutrient removal; Anaerobic Treatment of Municipal Wastewater; Resource recovery from source separated domestic wastewater: energy, water, nutrients and organics; Wastewater treatment in algal systems; Niches for Bioelectrochemical systems in sewage treatment plants; Aerobic granular sludge reactors; Membranes in wastewater treatment; Enhanced Primary Treatment; Innovative primary and secondary sewage treatment technologies for organic micropollutants abatement; Post-treatment for micropollutants removal; Technologies limiting gas and odour emissions; Reducing the impact of sludge; Producing high-quality recycled water; Producing sludge for agricultural applications; Recovering energy from sludge; Metal recovery from sludge: Problem or Opportunity; Nutrients recovery from wastewater streams; Recovery of organic added value products from wastewater; The impact of innovation on wastewater treatment economics; Assessing environmental impacts and benefits of wastewater treatment plants; Determining benchmarks in wastewater treatment plants using Life Cycle Assessment; Public perceptions of recycled water; Greenhouse and Odour emissions; The impact and risks of micropollutants in the environment; Legal and Policy Frameworks for the Management of Wastewater; Environmental decision support systems; Superstructure-based optimization tool for plant design and retrofitting; Model-based comparative assessment of innovative processes

References

[1]

J. M. Lema and S. S. Martinez, Innovative Wastewater Treatment & Resource Recovery Technologies: Impacts on Energy, Economy and Environment, IWA Publishing, 2017.

[2]

M. Henze, P. Harremoes, E. Arvin and J. L. Jansen, Wastewater Treatment: Biological and Chemical Processes, Springer , 2013.

 


Bioreactor design

Course Content:

Bioprocess development, introduction to engineering calculations, presentation and analysis of data, material balances, energy balances, unsteady-state material and energy balances, fluid flow, mixing, heat transfer, mass transfer, unit operations, homogeneous reactions, heterogeneous reactions, reactor engineering, new methodologies for multiphase bioreactors, design and modelling of immobilised biocatalytic, advances in the selection and design of twoliquid phase, enzymatic membrane reactors, versed micellar bioreaction, solidgas systems theory and, biofilm reactors, pulsing bioreactors, design of liquidliquidsolid, flocculation bioreactors, bioreactor design for plant, lethal effects of bubbles in, a lowcost technology

References

[1]

P. M. Doran, Bioprocess Engineering Principles, Academic Press, 2013.

[2]

J. M. Cabral, M. Mota and J. Tramper, Multiphase Bioreactor Design, CRC Press, 2003.

 


Nanotechnology in water and wastewater treatment

Course Content:

Nanotechnology for water and wastewater treatment potentials and limitations, Environmental and human health effects of nanomaterials used in water and waste water treatment, Life cycle assessment of nanomaterials towards green nanotechnology, Physical and chemical analysis of nanoparticles, Mobility fate and toxicity of nanomaterials in water and wastewater, Effective phosphate removal using Ca based layered double hydroxide nanomaterials, Recycling MgOH2 nanoadsorbents during the removal of heavy metals from wastewater using CrVI as an example, Visible light active doped titania for water purification nitrogen and silver doping, Pd nanocatalysts for PCB removal, Activated carbon supported palladized iron nanoparticles applications to contaminated site remediation, Microbial manufactured silver nanoparticles for water disinfection, Electrospun nanofibrous membranes for water treatment applications, Porous ceramic and metallic microreactors, Biomimetic membranes for water separation applications, Functionalised graphene a novel platform for biosensors, Nanoparticle based sensors for water quality testing, Green synthesis of nanoparticles and nanomaterials, Plant based nanoparticle manufacturing

References

[1]

A. Roy and J. Bhattacharya, Nanotechnology in Industrial Wastewater Treatment, IWA Publishing, 2015.

[2]

T. E. Cloete, Nanotechnology in Water Treatment Applications, Horizon Scientific Press, 2010.

[3]

P. Lens, J. Virkutyte, V. Jegatheesan and S. Al-Abed, Nanotechnology for Water and Wastewater Treatment, IWA Publishing, 2013.

 


Absorptive processes in water and wastewater treatment

Course Content:

Adsorbents and adsorbent characterization, Adsorption equilibrium I: General aspects and single-solute adsorption, Adsorption equilibrium II: Multi solute adsorption, Adsorption kinetics, Adsorption dynamics in fixed-bed adsorbers, Fixed-bed adsorber design, Desorption and reactivation, Geosorption processes in water treatment,

References

[1]

S. D. Faust and O. M. Aly, Adsorption Processes for Water Treatment, Elsevier, 2013.

[2]

A. P. f. W. T. a. Purification, Bonilla-Petriciolet,Adrián ; Mendoza-Castillo, Didilia Ileana ;Reynel-Ávila,Hilda Elizabeth, Springer, 2017.

[3]

E. Worch, Adsorption Technology in Water Treatment: Fundamentals, Processes, and Modeling, De Gruyter, 2012.

[4]

E. Worch, Adsorption Technology in Water Treatment: Fundamentals, Processes, and Modeling, Walter de Gruyter, 2012.

 


 

Advanced chemical treatment of water and wastewater

Course Content:

Characteristics of Water and Wastewater, Quantity of Water and Wastewater, Constituents of Water and Wastewater, Unit Operations of Water and Wastewater Treatment, Flow Measurements and Flow and Quality Equalizations, Pumping, Screening, Settling, and Flotation, Mixing and Flocculation, Conventional Filtration, Advanced Filtration and Carbon Adsorption, Aeration, Absorption, and Stripping, Unit Processes of Water and Wastewater Treatment, Water Softening, Water Stabilization, Coagulation, Removal of Iron and Manganese by Chemical Precipitation, Removal of Phosphorus by Chemical Precipitation, Removal of Nitrogen by Nitrification-Denitrification, Ion Exchange, Disinfection

References

[1]

J. Bratby, Coagulation and Flocculation in Water and Wastewater Treatment, IWA Publishing, 2016.

[2]

H. H. Hahn, E. Hoffmann and H. Ødegaard, Chemical Water and Wastewater Treatment VII, IWA Publishing, 2002.

[3]

A. P. Sincero and G. A. Sincero, Physical-Chemical Treatment of Water and Wastewater, IWA Publishing, 2002.

 


Biotechnology in water and wastewater treatment

Course Content:

Bacterial Metabolism in Wastewater Treatment Systems, Industrial Wastewater Sources and Treatment Strategies, Activated Sludge Process, Modeling of Aerobic Wastewater Treatment Processes, Highrate Anaerobic Wastewater Treatment, Modeling of Biogas Reactors, Aerobic Degradation of Recalcitrant Organic Compounds by Microorganisms, Principles of Anaerobic Degradation of Organic Compounds, Soil Remediation and Disposal, Bioremediation by the Heap Technique, Bioreactors, Insitu Remediation, Composting of Organic Waste, Anaerobic Fermentation of Wet and Semidry Garbage Waste Fractions, Landfill Systems Sanitary Landfilling of Solid Wastes and Longterm Problems with Leachate, Sanitary Landfills Longterm Stability and Environmental Implications, Process Engineering of Biological Waste Gas Purification, Commercial Applications of Biological Waste Gas Purification, Perspectives of Wastewater Waste Offgas and Soil Treatment

References

[1]

H.-J. Jördening and J. Winter, Environmental Biotechnology: Concepts and Applications, John Wiley & Sons, 2006.

[2]

Z. Ujang and M. Henze, Environmental Biotechnology: Advancement in Water and Wastewater Application in the Tropics, IWA Publishing, 2004.

[3]

S. Agathos and W. Reineke, Biotechnology for the Environment: Wastewater Treatment and Modeling, Waste Gas Handling, Springer, 2013.